Diagnosis of ADHD in a child, attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity - how to recognize ADHD?

  In the middle of the 19th century, a German specialist in the field of psychoneurology (note - Heinrich Hoffman) assessed the child's excessive mobility. After the phenomenon was studied quite actively and widely, and since the 60s this state has been translated into the category of "pathological" with minimal brain dysfunction.

Why ADHD? Becauseat the heart of hyperactivity is precisely the attention deficit   (the inability to concentrate).

What is hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder - the classification of ADHD

In medicine, the term "hyperactivity" refers to the inability to concentrate and concentrate, constant distraction and excessive activity. The child is constantly in a nervous-excitable state and terrifies not only strangers, but also his own parents.

The activity of the baby is normal (well, there are no children sitting quietly all childhood in the corner with markers).

But when the child's behavior passes certain limits, it makes sense to look closely and think about whether it's just capriciousness and "motor", or it's time to go to a specialist.

Under ADHD should be understoodsyndrome of increased activity   (note - physical and mental), against which excitation always prevails over inhibition.

This diagnosis, according to statistics, puts 18% of children (mostly boys).

How is the disease classified?

According to the dominant symptoms, ADHD is usually divided into the following types:

  • ADHD, in which hyperactivity is absent, and attention deficit, in contrast, prevails.   Usually occurs in girls, characterized, in particular, by an excessively turbulent fantasy and a constant "wobble in the clouds."
  • ADHD, in which excessive activity predominates, and attention deficit is not observed.   This type of pathology is very rare. Is manifested due to CNS disorders or individual characteristics of the child.
  • ADHD, in which hyperactivity coexists with attention deficit.   This form is the most common.

Also note the difference in the forms of pathology:

  • Simple form   (excessive activity + absent-mindedness, inattention).
  • Complicated form.   That is, with the attendant symptoms (disturbed sleep, nervous tic, headaches and even stuttering).

ADHD - how is diagnosis performed?

If there is a suspicion of a pathology, you should refer to such children's specialists aspsychologist   andneurologist. andpsychiatrist .

After usually send on consultation toophthalmologist and epileptologist. tospeech therapist and endocrinologist. toLORU .

Naturally, at the 1 st visit and examination of the child no one can diagnose (if still put - look for another doctor).

Diagnosis of ADHD is very difficult and time-consuming: besides talking with doctors, they monitor the child's behavior, perform neuropsychological testing, apply modern methods of examination (EEG and MRI, blood tests, Echocardiography.

Why is it important to contact a specialist in a timely manner? It is necessary to understand that under the "mask" of ADHD, other, sometimes very serious diseases are often concealed.

Therefore, having noticed in your child this kind of "strangeness", go to the Department of Pediatric Neurology or to any local specialized center of neurology for examination.

The main causes of LNG in children

The "roots" of pathology lie in the impaired function of the subcortical nuclei of the brain, as well as its frontal areas, or in the functional immaturity of the brain. The adequacy of information processing is a failure, as a result of which there is an excess of emotional (as well as audible, visual) stimuli, which leads to irritation, anxiety, etc.

Often, the tabulation of ADHD occurs in the womb of the mother.

The reasons that give rise to the development of pathology are not that many:

  • Smoking of the expectant mother in the process of bearing the fetus.
  • The threat of termination of pregnancy.
  • Frequent stress.
  • Lack of proper balanced nutrition.

The following can also play a decisive role:

  • The birth of a baby is premature (note: up to the 38th week).
  • Swift or stimulated, as well as prolonged labor.
  • The presence of neurological pathologies in the baby.
  • Heavy metal poisoning.
  • Excessive severity of the mother.
  • Unbalanced children's diet.
  • Severe situation in a house where crumbs grow (stresses, quarrels, constant conflicts).
  • Genetic predisposition.

And, of course, it should be understood that the presence of several factors seriously increases the risk of pathology.

Symptoms and signs of ADHD in children by age - diagnosis of hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder in a child

Unfortunately, the diagnosis of ADHD among Russian specialists leaves much to be desired. There are a lot of cases when this diagnosis is put to children with psychopathy or signs of sheer schizophrenia, as well as with mental retardation.

Therefore, it is important to pass the examination of professionals who clearly understand - what methods are used to diagnose, what to exclude immediately, how the manifestation of pathology depends on age, etc.

It is equally important to correctly assess the symptoms (not yourself, but with a doctor!).

ADHD in children under 1 year of age - symptoms:

  • Stormy reaction to various kinds of manipulation.
  • Excessive excitability.
  • Delay in the development of speech.
  • Disturbed sleep (too long awake, sleeps poorly, does not lay, etc.).
  • Delay in physical development (note: 1-1.5 months).
  • Hypersensitivity to bright light or sounds.

Of course, do not panic if this symptomatology is a rare and single phenomenon. Also it is worth remembering that the moodiness of a crumb at such a young age can be a consequence of a change in diet, growing teeth, colic, etc.

ADHD in infants 2-3 years old - symptoms:

  • Restlessness.
  • Difficulties with fine motor skills.
  • Inconsistency and chaotic movements of the baby, as well as their redundancy when there is no need for them.
  • Delay in the development of speech.

At this age, the signs of pathology have the property to manifest themselves most actively.

ADHD in preschool children - symptoms:

  • Inattention and poor memory.
  • Restlessness and absent-mindedness.
  • Difficulties in the sleeping period.
  • Disobedience.

All kids at the age of 3 years are stubborn, capricious and excessively capricious. But with ADHD such manifestations are significantly exacerbated. Especially at the time of adaptation in a new team (in kindergarten).

ADHD in school children - symptoms:

  • Lack of concentration of attention.
  • Lack of patience when listening to adults.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Appearance and manifestation of various phobias.
  • Unbalance.
  • Enuresis.
  • Headache.
  • The appearance of a nervous tic.
  • Inability to spend some time quietly in the 1 st place.

Usually, such students can see a serious deterioration in the general condition: with ADHD the nervous system simply does not have time to cope with the large volume of school loads (physical and mental).

Hyperactivity - or still just activity: how to distinguish?

Mom and Dad ask this question quite often. But there is still the possibility of dissociating one state from another.

You just need to watch your child.

  • Hyperactive toddler (GM) can not control itself   . constantly in motion, arranges tantrums with fatigue. The active kid (AM) loves moving games, does not like to sit still, but with interest and pleasure he quietly listens to a fairy tale or collects puzzles.
  • The GM often, much and emotionally says. At the same time he constantly interrupts and, as a rule, rarely hears the answer. AM also speaks quickly and a lot, but with a less emotional color (without "obsession"), and also constantly asks questions, the answers to which, for the most part, listen to the end.
  • GM is extremely difficult to put to bed, and he sleeps badly   - restless and with interruptions to moods. There are also allergies and various intestinal disorders. AM sleeps well, and does not experience digestion problems.
  • GM is unmanaged.   Mom can not "pick up the keys to him." The prohibitions, restrictions, exhortations, tears, contracts, etc. the child simply does not respond. AM is not very active outside the house, in the familiar environment "relaxes" and becomes a "mom-tormentor". But you can pick a key.
  • The GM provokes conflicts itself.   Curb aggression and emotions, he is not capable. Pathology is manifested by fighting (biting, shoving, throwing objects). AM is very active, but without aggression. He is just with the "motor", inquisitive and vigorous. It can not provoke a conflict, although the surrender is given in a certain case - very much even.

Of course, all these signs are relative, and children are individual.

Categorically it is not recommended to put your own diagnosis to your child.. Remember that even one simple pediatrician or neurologist with experience to put such a diagnosis alone and without examinations can not - you need a full diagnosis of specialists.

If your baby is impressionable, curious, agile and does not give you a moment of peace - it's still not talking about anything!

Well and one positive moment «on a pososhok»:

Often children, turning into adolescents, "step over" this pathology. Only 30-70% of children go into adulthood.

Of course, this is not a reason - to give up on the symptoms and wait until the child "outgrows" the problem. Be attentive to your children.

All information in the article is given solely for educational purposes, it may not correspond to the specific circumstances of your child's health, and is not a medical recommendation. Site сolady.ru recalls that you should never delay or ignore the call to the doctor!

The son was given ADHD. The doctor said that the most important thing is the strictest regime of the day and the regime in general. We have been fighting the regime for a year, and the results do exist. And the assessments became better, the performance improved, at home - it became quieter. Now even a little bit downed regime is a serious breakdown, after which we start all over again. So I advise the mothers of the hyperactive kids very much - start with the regime.

Special treatment and no. Basically - a mode for discipline and tranquility of the nervous system (it needs very much stability, this system), concentrating on something specific (we need clarity in everything - in lessons, in tasks set, in requests). Then special classes for calm (each has his own chess, there, together, the herbariums to paste, puzzles, etc.). Mandatory "life on the positive": no negative, screaming and abusive, sense - zero from it. Then, step-by-step is very important: first one small task, then another. As bricks - we build a "task" for a little bit. Well, and so on. And I do not recommend pills. If only there is not very serious evidence. We did without them.

Yes, the regime is very important, of course ... And we are still engaged in small motor skills - we sculpt, embroider, construct designers, etc. We also teach poems (who will remember more - for stimulus, with prizes, all the time). It helps a lot in school, and in terms of state. The doctor said that it is important to teach to bring everything to the end, so that later there would be no problems. this moment was given to us with great difficulty. But all the same the result is. Now he does not lag behind in the program, gets excited less often, sleeps more calmly. In general, the components of success are: comply with the regime, love the child and be always positive with him, dose lessons, play a variety of games, constantly occupy something with the child, learn with it. Comp and TV give to neighbors.

Sinuly put such a diagnosis when it was small. By the middle school everything had already passed by itself. Although prescribed drugs - valerian, vitamin (we drank, of course), but amitriptyline drink was refused - there were not enough antidepressants in 5 years. I even think that the son was just active, that he did not have this disgusting ADHD, which all the brains had eaten out of us.

To the child - 12. A nightmare with this ADHD full. Already nerves are not enough. The psychiatrist looked, said - drink glycine and pantogam, involve in home and country work more often, give in sports, a computer and a TV - for a maximum of an hour, a regime of strict-tune. I gave my son to the sport, I attached courses to the courses, I watch strictly for the regime and others - until there is no effect. One hope is that it will grow up and it will all go away. Well, I can not always be with him every minute - I also need to work. Yes, and he does not want me to be everywhere with him, the big one is already a boy to the same. Everything is difficult.