The development of the child
Any psychologist will tell You that a child is a person. But what is a person? Is it possible somehow to affect the personality development of the child? Talk about this together with the Country of the Soviets.
There are many different definitions of personality from the point of view of psychology or social science. For example, the common denominational term "person" implies a human individual as a subject of relations and conscious activity.
Every person is an individual, but not every individual is a person. Formation of the individual personality does not happen suddenly, this process affects many factors.
The whole process of personality development can be divided into several stages in accordance with the age of the child:
- early childhood (0-3)
- preschool and school child (4-11)
- adolescence (12-15)
- youth (16-18)
The prerequisites for the development of personality are laid in the child's body even before his birth - these are the so-called perinatal (prenatal) matrices. The theory of basic perinatal matrices was developed by Stanislav Grof. According to this theory, the experience of the future child of pregnancy and childbirth, as well as the events of the postpartum period, are recorded in the child in the form of four main matrices, which subsequently influence the development of the child's personality.
The desired children, who were born naturally and did not experience life-like trauma, have the potential for life, adaptability, activity is higher than in children who have experienced difficulties during pregnancy and childbirth.
Newborn baby immediately comes into contact with the outside world: mom, doctors, nurses. And although he does not yet know how to express his emotions, he is already beginning to explore the world, his personality is beginning to develop.
At the age of three a child is brought up in the family and its relationships with this group have on the development of personality has a huge influence. If the family prevails a spirit of cooperation, goodwill, mutual understanding, the child's personality develops as a person caring, gentle, able to admit their mistakes and take responsibility for them.
The child goes through three phases of personality development:
- adaptation (development of basic skills, language acquisition)
- individualization (the opposition of others, the selection of the "I")
- integration (behavior management, the ability to obey adults, "management" of adults).
If by the next age period the child has not completed the phase of the previous one's intercalation, then prerequisites for a personality development crisis are formed. A typical example of the crisis of personal development is the "crisis of three years".
At the preschool age, the collective becomes another significant social group from the point of view of personal development. As a rule, it is a collective of a kindergarten. The development of a child's personality is influenced by his relationships not only with peers, but also with educators. The child learns the norms of discipline, interaction with others.
Being in the phase of individualization of this age period, the child seeks to stand out in the team either through the positive presentation of himself in various activities, or through pranks and prose. In this phase, the assessment of the caregiver for the child is as important as the assessment of the parents.
At the younger school age, the child also passes through all three phases of personality development, as in the previous age period. The child is included in a new social group, now the evaluation of the teacher is of considerable importance for him.
Adolescence in personality development is characterized by the fact that the child is not transferred to the new group, changing the group itself. For a child this age, the importance of different extra-curricular activities, communication with peers. The opinion of peers can be more authoritative than the opinions of teachers and parents.
In adolescence, children often experience another crisis of personality development, which is provoked by too rapid changes in the socio-psychological structure of the group in which they are. For the crisis of this age, the spirit of contradiction is characteristic, the desire to do everything in own way, to acquire own experience of successes and misses.
By 18 years, as a rule, the personality of the child is completely formed. Cardinally change the already established personality can not, you can only help the child to correct his behavior. Therefore, it is so important to instill in the child moral and ethical values in a timely manner, to teach him the norms of behavior and human relationships when the child's personality is still developing.