Modern pedagogy is becoming more flexible and allows parents and teachers to use a wide variety of teaching methods. You can choose any — only that it was effective and did not harm the child. One of the most popular innovative methods of teaching is heuristic learning.
In Greek heurisko – "open", "find", "find." It is about finding knowledge and answers to their questions. The origins of heuristic learning should be sought in Ancient Greece, the method of the ancient philosopher Socrates. He called the used learning method the maieutics. which literally translates from Greek as a midwifery. Socrates asked his students questions, urged them to reason; so in a conversation knowledge was born.
Modern heuristic learning based just on the Socratic maieutics. His goal is to help students to construct their own meaning, purpose and content of education, process of organization, diagnosis and awareness. If to speak in more simple words, heuristic learning is a continuous opening of the new .
Despite the age of the method, the concept of heuristic training in pedagogy has been used relatively recently. Hence no single interpretation: heuristic learning may imply a form of education (for example, heuristic conversation), teaching method (say, brainstorming) or technology creative development of students .
Heuristic learning combines creative and educational activities. The teacher does not give the student ready knowledge; he provides him with an object, the knowledge of which the student must master. An object can be a historical event, a natural phenomenon, a literary work, material for construction, etc. On its basis the child creates a product of activity - a hypothesis, text, scheme, product. The result of the child's creative activity can be absolutely unpredictable, it depends on the personality of the student. Only after this, the student, with the help of the teacher, compares the result with the known achievements in this area (cultural-historical analogs), reinterprets it.
The ultimate goal of heuristic learning — not the acquisition of specific knowledge and creative self-realization of the student. Accordingly, estimated not to adopt a child some knowledge on a particular subject, and his creative achievements in this field.
Heuristic learning is based on certain principles. Among them:
- personal goal setting student
- the choice of individual educational path
- interdisciplinary foundations of education content
- productivity training
- the primacy of educational products student
- situational learning
- educational reflection.
Often parents and even teachers confuse the heuristic learning problem. But there are differences between these methods. The cognitive task-the problem that the teacher poses to the child in problematic instruction-is a concrete decision or at least the direction of the solution. And an open task in heuristic training does not have the right solution, and the result is never known beforehand to either the student or the teacher.
The challenge of problem-based learning — transfer of experience from teacher to student in a nonstandard way (by setting cognitive challenges). A heuristic learning involves the creation of a student personal experience. In this case problem-based learning often is the preparatory stage for the heuristic. before you create your own product, the child must learn the ways of its creation. In this he also helps the solution of cognitive problems.
Heuristic learning can be used when teaching almost any school subject, the main thing — to come up with a good open job. For example, at the physics class, you can offer the student to design the device (at least on paper), at the lesson of social science - to come up with a society of the future, at the physical education class - to make up his own set of exercises for the development of a certain group of muscles.
Of course, heuristic learning cannot completely replace traditional ones, but to use it as a Supplement to traditional methods for development of creative abilities of the child can and should be. The child always nice to feel like a full participant in the learning process. when they do not try to "force" knowledge violently, but give him to get them independently, even by trial and error. In the end, many great discoveries were made completely by accident!