Scarlet fever in children
Chickenpox. measles, rubella, mumps, scarlet fever are considered "childhood diseases" not because the adult is ill they can not. Just most often they get sick children infected in a kindergarten or school. One of the most acute of these diseases — scarlet fever in children.
Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease. Its causative agent is hemolytic streptococcus. Infection usually occurs by airborne droplets from patients and through household items, less often through third parties. Patients are infectious with 1 to 22 day of the disease, but especially - in the early days. The peak of the disease usually occurs in autumn and winter.
Signs of scarlet fever in children
Scarlet fever in children is usually easily determined by the characteristic combination of rash and sore throat. The incubation period of this infectious disease usually lasts from several days to a week, the onset of the disease is acute: the child rises to 38-40 °, nausea and vomiting can occur. He becomes sluggish and drowsy, complains of a chill and a headache.
After a few hours or a couple of days, the baby's skin turns red and a specific small rash of bright pink appears on it. It is more pronounced on the face, on the sides of the trunk and in the skin folds, and the nasolabial triangle on the contrary is pale. Usually the rash lasts 3-7 days, then disappears, after which the skin begins to peel - at first in more tender areas, then all over the body. The soles and palms most strongly flake.
In addition to rash scarlet fever in children is always accompanied by angina. The child complains of a sore throat, on examination you can see that the mucous throat has a bright red color with pinpoint hemorrhages (the so-called "glowing pharynx"), and the mucous of the hard palate is pale at the same time. Lymph nodes are enlarged and painful. The tongue at the beginning of the disease is dry, covered with a thick coating, then the plaque gradually descends and the tongue acquires a characteristic crimson color with pronounced papillae ("crimson" or "scarlet feather").
The disease can occur in mild, moderate or severe forms, so the timing of recovery may vary considerably. It should be noted that in recent years the symptoms of this disease are often erased.
Scarlet fever in children: treatment
Earlier scarlet fever in children was considered an extremely serious disease, the outcome of which was often fatal. But with the invention of antibiotics, the treatment of this disease has become quite a simple task.
Usually a baby with scarlet fever is treated at home, hospitalization is necessary only in severe cases or if complications exist. Isolation is very important, because scarlet fever is an extremely contagious disease. While he has a fever (acute period of the disease), he must comply with bed rest. Usually, the doctor prescribes strict bed rest during the rash and 3-5 days after the rash has gone.
Medicines antibiotics penicillin tablets (at home treatment) or injections (in hospital) because of hemolytic Streptococcus not sustainable. It can be reapers, phenoxymethyl penicillin, Amoxiclav, Augmentin, amoxicillin. In case of intolerance of penicillin a child is prescribed erythromycin. Treatment with antibiotics is usually 7-10 days.
In addition to antibiotics, prescribe antihistamines (fenkarol, dimedrol, tavegil, etc.). Additionally, vitamin C and B vitamins, calcium gluconate can be prescribed. Angina is treated topically: by rinsing with a warm solution of furacilin or dioxidin, infusion of chamomile, sage or calendula. In case of severe illness, infusion therapy (glucose solution intravenously) is prescribed to reduce intoxication.
A sick child needs a sparing diet - all food should be warm (in no case hot or cold), all meals are served in a cooked and frayed form, semi-liquid or liquid. You need to give more warm drink to remove toxins from the body. When the acute period of the disease passes, you can gradually return to normal nutrition.
With timely and proper treatment, the outcome of the disease is usually favorable. The main thing is to call the doctor in time to avoid possible complications.
Scarlet fever in children: complications
Scarlet fever is very dangerous in terms of complications of an infectious disease, because its pathogen, streptococcus, having got into the blood, seriously "beats" on such important organs as the heart, kidneys and blood vessels. The complications of this disease are conventionally divided into 2 types:
- early (within 2 weeks after transferred quinsy) is a complication of an inflammatory nature (otitis media, paramagnetically abscess, sinusitis, pharyngitis), transient lesions of the heart, kidneys and blood vessels. The latter can cause internal bleeding
- late (2 weeks after the disease) – complications of allergic nature (lesion of the heart valves, articular rheumatism, glomerulonephritis, damage to the brain – Sydenham's chorea).
Just note that in the majority of cases of severe complications of scarlet fever are the result of untimely or improper treatment of the disease.
Scarlet fever in children: prevention
Since vaccines against this disease do not exist yet, the most effective methods of its prevention are isolation of the patient and strengthening of children's immunity. With respect to the first specified method, the terms of quarantine are as follows:
- 12 days after isolation for a patient with scarlet fever preschooler and elementary school student
- 1 week from the moment of isolation of the patient - for children who have been in contact with him and visiting children's groups (preschool children and pupils of the first 2 classes of the school);
- 17 days from the first contact with the patient – for children that have been in contact with him the whole period of the disease and the visiting children's team (preschoolers and first 2 classes of school).
To strengthen a growing body can be through the following well-known and very simple activities:
- correct and balanced nutrition;
- maintain hygiene, ventilation of the premises and fresh air
- early detection and treatment of problems in the oral cavity, diseases of the ears and tonsils.
In addition, drugs that enhance the protective factors of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (IRS-19, imudon, etc.) also showed themselves well.