Intarsia and marquetry: inlaid wood
The art of inlay is known to mankind since ancient times. For the inlay you can use different materials (ceramics, marble, metal, etc.), but one of the most compliant material — wood. So the inlaid wood on wood (marquetry and intarsia ) are very popular among masters.
Of the two types of marquetry intarsia came first — it can rightly be considered the "mother" of marquetry. When performing intarsia wooden plates of different colors and textures cut into the wooden surface. which makes it possible to obtain a complex figured image.
It is believed that the intarsia was born in Ancient Egypt. where wood first began to be used for inlay along with a more "noble" materials. But the peak of its prosperity intarsia reached in Italy in the Renaissance. In this technique most often decorated church furniture and utensils.
Initially, the dominant ornaments were geometric and floral, but gradually the complexity of the works executed in the technique of marquetry, increased. Craftsmen began to produce the whole picture of wood. In order to make them more effective, they used not only a "game" on the contrast of light and dark wood, but also roasting, engraving, etching of wood.
As the product is made in the intarsia technique? First, a drawing is selected and a sketch is made, which is divided into separate elements (plates) - like a mosaic. Then these elements are cut from a tree of different colors and textures. The main (background) for the product is an array of wood, in which, using a special cutting tool, cuts for mosaic pieces are cut out.
The front side of the wooden plates polished and the back left rough to better into the background. Then you tightly to drive the plate along the edges, glue together and attach to the array-based. The product is ready! If the pieces are over the base is called relief intarsia. But if they are with her on the same level is scenic intarsia .
Marquetry is simplified technology intarsia. In fact, it is also a mosaic of wood, but the pieces are made of thin veneer sheets, going between them on the edges like a puzzle, glued together and glued to a flat base.
Marquetry is less time-consuming and costly technique than intarsia, but this does not mean that it is too simple. For jewelry in the technique of marquetry is also important accuracy, patience and artistic taste .
For marquetry use natural veneer - single-layer facing plywood, made of different types of wood. The thickness of the veneer can be different (from 0.5 to 1.2 mm), and its color and shade depends on the wood species that was used to make veneer. In addition, chemical methods are used to color the tree - for example, staining with stain.
How and when you work intarsia, you first need consider the pattern and draw a drawing (template) on thick paper. Then, using special tools from veneer, cut pieces of mosaic and smear them with joinery glue. Then the "puzzle" should be pasted onto a paper template-drawing, tightly fitting each other. After collecting the mosaic, it is turned over and pasted onto the base - the decorated product.
The finished product is covered with paper for a few hours put under the press. Two days later marquetry is polished, covered with several layers of varnish or special mastic. In a day, the mosaic is polished with polishing paste and cloth (cloth, felt, drape).
You can perform marquetry a little bit different cutting the tiles to the background veneer. The resulting mosaic is fixed with paper glued with glue and is glued to the surface of the item to be decorated. This type of marquetry is closer in technique to its "parent" - intarsia.
Marquetry and intarsia is used for furniture decoration, in the manufacture art parquet. original paintings, murals and Souvenirs. In order to learn how to work in these techniques, we need not only the neatness and artistic taste. It is very important to know how to "lead" certain types of wood during processing, varnishing, etc. But if you really try — you eventually get a real work of art.