Codling moth is one of the most common pests that ruin crops. This butterfly is common in all regions and can ruin not only the harvest of apples, but also plums and quinces.
Codling moth is a small gray butterfly, which is not always easy to notice in the garden. During the day these butterflies do not fly, at this time of day they sit in the grass or on the south side of the tree bark. Begin to fly butterflies only after sunset. At this time they lay eggs, from which the larvae appear. Worms in apples are caterpillars of apple moth.
Codling moth flies only in the spring 15-20 days after the end of flowering trees. Fruit flies fly for 1.5-2 months. Sometimes there is a massive year, which lasts only 10-15 days, while the rest of the time butterflies are almost invisible. At this time, the apple moth lays eggs, but not on the rough ovaries of the fruit, but on the underside of the leaves.
After 7-10 days, the larva hatch, which thengnaws an Apple, which most often occurs in places with little alteration of the skin. The hole it covers with cobwebs and sticks. Gradually, the caterpillar begins to grow in the apple and feeds on its flesh. But the fact is that the caterpillar does not stop there. She gnaws the apple to its core, where it eats sunflower seeds. Damaged in this way, apples ripen faster and fall to the ground. Often apples can fall along with the caterpillar. If the apples are large, the caterpillar can damage only one fruit. But if the tree grows smaller apples, the caterpillar can damage 2-3 fetuses during its development, which lasts from 25 to 40 days.
In the Northern regions and those located in the middle lane, Codling moth gives only one generation of offspring. When the apple falls, the caterpillar climbs out of it and climbs into a secluded place where it will winter. But this is only provided that the development of the caterpillar will occur within 40 days. In southern regions and in abnormally hot years the caterpillar develops much faster, then pupates. After 12-16 days a butterfly flies out of the chrysalis, which lays eggs of the second generation. Sometimes the apple moth can also give the third generation of caterpillars. It should be taken into account that the most dangerous and voracious are the second and third generations.
Place of wintering Codling moth is dead bark of trees. Caterpillars crawl under the bark, where quietly tolerate cold winters. In the spring when the temperature rises above 10°C, the caterpillars start to pupate.
Codling moth: the struggle
To maintain your harvest, you need to know how to deal with the moth. To startApple trees should be cleaned of dead bark. so that the apple moth can not be hibernated. You can also remove the dead bark and cocoons of caterpillars in the early spring before the whitewashing of the trees. Spread under the apple tree a plastic film on which the caterpillars and bark will fall. All scraped should immediately burn.
Another method of dealing with Codling moth is the use of hunting zones. They are applied to large branches and the base of the trunk. Caterpillars that could damage apples or those that climb on branches in search of other fruits will climb into the trapping belts. The belt should be cleaned once every 10-12 days. To make a hunter belt, cut strips 16-20 cm wide from corrugated cardboard. Each strip is placed one on a trunk or branch and tied with a string so that the edges of the belt are slightly bent.
During the summer butterflies can be set special bait for them. Codling moth does not fly into the light, so you should put a bait of fermented juice or compote, which adds a little bit of yeast, bread and sugar. After a couple days, your brew for bait will be ready. Diluted with a small amount of water brew post every evening in the Apple trees, and in the morning removed. So you'll catch only the Codling moth and will not kill other beneficial insects, which will also attract the smell of the brew.
If preventive measures fail, and Codling moth continues to ruin your harvest, can you advise treatment with insecticides. In this case, it is required to know when exactly the apple moth begins to fly. To do this, several cocoons can be placed in a jar covered with gauze. Place the jar under the canopy and periodically check to see if the butterflies have appeared. When the butterflies appear, start counting the time to treat the apple tree with insecticides. When calculating, take into account the fact that males begin to fly 2-3 days earlier than females. Females begin to lay eggs for 3-5 days of life, provided that after sunset the weather is calm and the air temperature will be above 16 ° С. Caterpillars will appear only after 9-10 days at an air temperature of 18-21 ° C. If the air temperature is higher, the caterpillars will appear faster, lower - the time of their appearance should be shifted to a later period. Approximate time for the first processing of apples from the moth will come in 15-20 days after flowering. The most effective drugs for combating apple fescue are all those based on the active agent esfenvalerate.
It's amazing, butCodling moth can be combated also by means of trichogram. which lay their eggs in the eggs of the fruiting. Larvae of the Trichogram develop in the egg of the apple moth, where they pupate. Then from the eggs fly adult trichogram. But the fact is that such a method of struggle can only be used in the northern regions, where the apple moth only gives one generation.