Learn to make a herbarium and an album for him with their hands
The word "herbarium" is translated as "herbalist". This is a collection of dried samples of flora, decorated in a separate album with a mention of the genus of the plant. The type, Latin name and description of the exhibit are indicated on the reverse side of the sheet, preferably in printed form. However, if you just want to keep beautiful leaves for memory, you can not adhere to the rules. And in order for the herbarium to please you for many years, you should learn how to collect and dry samples of the plant world. That's what we're gonna do. Today we will learn how to make a herbarium with our own hands. By the way, our master class is suitable for the pupil of the primary school and their parents.
Which leaves better make a herbarium?
The choice of plants depends on your goals, climatic conditions, geographical latitude and the type of your herbalist.
Distinguish the herbarium:
- special for educational purposes
- systematic, when samples arrange in alphabetical order
- themed, for example, a herbarium of weeds and medicinal herbs
- floral: with plants collected in a particular area
- periodically, when samples are classified by Botanical genera and families, etc.
If you are just keen on creating a collection of herbs, trust your intuition and choose those plants that will most attract your gaze with the shape of their leaves.
In this master class are the leaves:
- poplar, maple, Linden, chestnut
- rose, lilac, Jasmine, acacia
- apricot, cherry, plum, red currant, plum, barberry, grapes, walnut, mulberry and hazel.
How to make a herbarium of your own hands – step by step instructions
The features of collecting plants for a herbarium:
- The leaves should be dry, so collect them better, with appropriate weather.
- Suitable clear samples without visible deviations, not damaged by insects or fungi.
- If plants from one population have notable differences, we can submit samples with different shapes.
- A small plant can be represented in the herbarium together with the root system.
- When collecting leaves from trees and shrubs, it is desirable to disrupt as flowers or fruit.
- In order that the herbarium was perfect, it is desirable to collect the plants with the stock. It will be useful, if the sample is damaged in transit or the color will be distorted after drying.
- If the plant has a thick stem or root, it is better to cut it in half lengthwise.
- In one file it is recommended to put plants of the same species. If the sheet is large, it is possible to take from 1 to 3 samples if fine – got enough to fill a sheet of paper in the album.
To collect samples you will need a herbarium folder, a ballpoint pen, a lot of unnecessary newspapers and a scoop, in case you need to dig a plant with the root.
Collected samples should be carefully wrapped in a sheet of newspaper, put in a file and identified in a folder so that they are not wrinkled.
You can buy a herbarium folder in a stationery store or make it yourself from two sheets of A4 or A3 cardboard, depending on the size of the leaves that you plan to assemble. For this you will need a punch. Between sheets of cardboard it is necessary to insert sheets of Whatman and punch holes in the center of the folder. You can fasten all this with a thin tape or wire. On the side of the file, you can write the name of the ripped plant, the place and time of collection of the sample.
How to dry herbarium
For drying at home, samples of herbs can be put between pages of thick books, pre-laying between them sheets of newspapers or unnecessary thick paper.
In order for the leaves to dry faster, it is necessary to change the paper 2 times a day to dry, since it absorbs moisture very quickly.
In botanical laboratories, a special press with metal mesh is used to level the samples. And at home thick books fit, between which you need to pinch the plants.
In the cold season samples for a herbarium is better to dry near a radiator or heater.
Useful tips on drying and storing plants:
- Order flower with blue color, for example, chicory, has retained its original color, it should be dipped for 30 seconds in denatured alcohol.
- To make the leaves denser, they must be placed in a solution of water and PVA glue in a ratio of 1: 4.
- If the plant after drying holds its shape and is directed vertically, so you did the right thing.
- The best place to store album with a herbarium Cabinet in a dry bright room.
Alternative methods for drying samples:
- Iron sheet wrapped in thick paper, and iron gently. Repeat the procedure in a few hours. The main thing is to do everything very carefully, otherwise the instance will lose its natural color.
- If for you is more important than form, and not the color of the leaves, then pour in water heated to 60 degrees centigrade, the glycerin in the ratio of 1:3. Put in a container with the resulting solution leaves and leave for 2 days. When samples go out, you can get them, dry them and put under the press.
How to make an album for a herbarium
There are different options for creating an album-herbalist. You can make it with your own hands from the beginning to the end, you can create an original inside, or you can just buy a ready album and paste samples there.
Option 1: the Album with his own hands
Tools for design:
- old sketchbook
- hole punch
- PVA glue
- household gloves
- sheets of thick drawing paper, preferably A3
- sheets of tracing paper or stationery paper
- 25 cm of ribbon or braid
- color marker
- ball-point pen.
Step by step instructions
In order to issue a herbarium with your own hands, cut off the cover from the used album for drawing, or buy 2 sheets of A3 thick cardboard.
Put between the cardboard sheets of Whatman. Alternating inside the album is Whatman and Tracing Paper, make holes with a punch.
Cover the album, as fantasy tells you. For example, you can make the inscription "My Herbarium" and draw a pair of maple leaves. You can attach an album using a tape.
You can sew samples with green thread, or you can glue with fish glue, narrow strips of paper, PVA glue and others.
Option 2: creative design
You can buy a finished album and create it in a creative way. For example, experiment with the leaves, unfolding them in a different order, and draw a flask or vase to them. In order not to be mistaken, sketch with a simple pencil.
Then move the drawing with the marker and add the seeds or leaves to complete the composition.
In this form it is possible to get the whole herbarium, and you have an unusual pattern of leaves.
Option 3: registration in the folder, the folder
Making a herbarium in a folder with files is more economical than buying an album. In addition, you can always swap files and each time to make a variety of viewing herbarium.
Leaving leaves brings peace. Collecting "herbalist", you not only spend time in the fresh air, but also learn a lot of new and interesting about the plants of your land. Choose the way you like and enjoy the creation of a herbarium for a junior school or home collection.