Learn to make a herbarium and an album for him with their hands
The word "herbarium" is translated as "herbalist". This is a collection of dried specimens of the flora are decorated in a separate album with a reference to the kind of plants. Species, Latin name and a description of the exhibit specified on the reverse side of the sheet, preferably in printed form. However, if you simply want to keep the beautiful leaves on the memory, can not adhere to the rules. And in order that the herbarium will delight you for many years, you should learn how to collect and dry samples of the plant world. We will talk about it. Today we will learn how to make a herbarium of your own hands. By the way, our master-class is suitable for elementary school students and their parents.
Which leaves better make a herbarium?
The choice of plants depends on your goals, climatic conditions, geographical latitude and of your herbalist.
Distinguish the herbarium:
- special for educational purposes
- systematic, when samples arrange in alphabetical order
- themed, for example, a herbarium of weeds and medicinal herbs
- floral: with plants collected in a particular area
- periodically, when samples are classified by Botanical genera and families, etc.
If you are just fond of making collection of herbs, trust your instincts and choose the plants that form its leaves the most will attract your eyes.
In this master class presented lists:
- poplar, maple, Linden, chestnut
- rose, lilac, Jasmine, acacia
- apricot, cherry, plum, red currant, plum, barberry, grapes, walnut, mulberry and hazel.
How to make a herbarium of your own hands – step by step instructions
The features of collecting plants for a herbarium:
- The leaves should be dry, so collect them better, with appropriate weather.
- Suitable clear samples without visible deviations, not damaged by insects or fungi.
- If plants from one population have notable differences, we can submit samples with different shapes.
- A small plant can be represented in the herbarium together with the root system.
- When collecting leaves from trees and shrubs, it is desirable to disrupt as flowers or fruit.
- In order that the herbarium was perfect, it is desirable to collect the plants with the stock. It will be useful, if the sample is damaged in transit or the color will be distorted after drying.
- If the plant has a thick stem or root, it is better to cut it in half lengthwise.
- In one file it is recommended to put plants of the same species. If the sheet is large, it is possible to take from 1 to 3 samples if fine – got enough to fill a sheet of paper in the album.
To collect samples you will need a herbarium folder, ball point pen, don't need a lot of Newspapers, and the scoop, in case you will need to dig up the plant by the roots.
The collected samples should be carefully wrapped in a sheet of newspaper to put in the file and determine the folder so they don't get crushed.
Folder for a herbarium can buy at a stationery store or make it yourself from two sheets of cardboard of A4 or A3, depending on the size of the leaves that you plan to collect. For this you will need a hole punch. Between the cardboard sheets you want to insert a sheet of paper and punch holes in the center of the folder. To seal all this by using a thin tape or wire. On the side of the file, you can write the name ripped off plants, place and time of specimen collection.
How to dry herbarium
For drying at home samples of herbs can be put between the pages of thick books, pre-paving between sheets of Newspapers or unwanted construction paper.
In order for the leaves to dry faster, you need 2 times a day to change the paper to dry, as it very quickly absorbs moisture.
In Botanical laboratories for alignment of the samples used special press with metal grids. And home fit thick books between which you need to hold down the plants.
In the cold season samples for a herbarium is better to dry near a radiator or heater.
Useful tips on drying and storing plants:
- Order flower with blue color, for example, chicory, has retained its original color, it should be dipped for 30 seconds in denatured alcohol.
- The leaves became denser, they must be placed in a solution of water and PVA glue in the ratio of 1:4.
- If the plant after drying holds its shape and is directed vertically, so you did the right thing.
- The best place to store album with a herbarium Cabinet in a dry bright room.
Alternative methods of drying samples:
- Iron sheet wrapped in thick paper, and iron gently. Repeat the procedure in a few hours. The main thing is to do everything very carefully, otherwise the instance will lose its natural color.
- If for you is more important than form, and not the color of the leaves, then pour in water heated to 60 degrees centigrade, the glycerin in the ratio of 1:3. Put in a container with the resulting solution leaves and leave for 2 days. When samples go out, you can get them, dry them and put under the press.
How to make an album for a herbarium
There are various options for the design of the album-herbalist. You can do it yourself from beginning to end, the original design of inside, and you can just buy a ready-made album and stick in there samples.
Option 1: the Album with his own hands
Tools for design:
- old sketchbook
- hole punch
- PVA glue
- household gloves
- sheets of thick drawing paper, preferably A3
- sheets of tracing paper or stationery paper
- 25 cm of ribbon or braid
- color marker
- ball-point pen.
Step by step instructions
In order to make a herbarium of your own hands, cut the cover of the used album for drawing, or purchase 2 sheets of cardboard A3 size.
Put between cardboard sheets of drawing paper. Alternating inside of the album, drawing paper and tracing paper, make holes using hole puncher.
Complete your album artwork, as you will prompt the imagination. For example, can make the words "My herbarium" and draw a pair of maple leaves. To bind the album with ribbon.
You can sew samples of green thread, and can be glued with fish glue, narrow strips of paper, glue and others.
Option 2: creative design
You can buy a ready album and creatively decorate it. For example, to experiment with the leaves, placing them in a different order, and to finish a flask or a vase for them. Not to be mistaken, make a sketch a simple pencil.
Then move the drawing marker pen and add the seeds or leaves to complete the composition.
In this form it is possible to get the whole herbarium, and you have an unusual pattern of leaves.
Option 3: registration in the folder, the folder
Making a herbarium in a file folder is more economical than buying the album. Besides, you can always swap the files each time to add variety to viewing fall foliage.
Leaf collection brings peace. Collecting "Travnik", you will not only spend time in the fresh air, but also learn a lot of new and interesting about plants of their region. To choose the way and have fun creating a herbarium for Junior schools or home collection.